What should I use to quantify heterogeneity in meta-analysis?

Meta-analysis Scientific researchers tend to produce literature on the same topic either to replicate or extend prior studies or due to a lack of awareness of prior evidence (Hedges & Cooper, 2009). Results across studies tend to vary, even when researchers try to replicate studies, due to differences in sample characteristics, research designs, analytic strategies or sampling error (Hedges & Cooper, 2009). Meta-analysis is a set of statistical techniques for synthesizing results from multiple primary studies on a common topic.